Category Archives: Technology

Create CSR using OpenSSL

Before you can install a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) certificate, you must first generate a certificate signing request (CSR). 

OpenSSL

The following sections describe how to use OpenSSL to generate a CSR for a single host name. 

Install OpenSSL

Check whether OpenSSL is installed by using the following command:

CentOS® and Red Hat® Enterprise Linux®

rpm -qa | grep -i openssl

The following output provides an example of what the command returns:

openssl-1.0.1e-48.el6_8.1.x86_64
openssl-devel-1.0.1e-48.el6_8.1.x86_64
openssl-1.0.1e-48.el6_8.1.i686

Debian® and Ubuntu®

dpkg -l | grep openssl

The following output provides an example of what the command returns:

ii  libgnutls-openssl27:amd64           2.12.23-12ubuntu2.4              amd64        GNU TLS library - OpenSSL wrapper

ii  openssl                             1.0.1f-1ubuntu2.16               amd64        Secure Sockets Layer toolkit - cryptographic utility

If the preceding packages are not returned, install OpenSSL by running the following command:

CentOS and Red Hat

yum install openssl openssl-devel

Debian and Ubuntu

apt-get install openssl

Generate the RSA key

Run the following commands to create a directory in which to store your RSA key, substituting a directory name of your choice:

mkdir ~/domain.com.ssl/
cd ~/domain.com.ssl/

Run the following command to generate a private key:

openssl genrsa -out ~/domain.com.ssl/domain.com.key 2048

Create a CSR

Run the following command to create a CSR with the RSA private key (output is in Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) format):

openssl req -new -sha256 -key ~/domain.com.ssl/domain.com.key -out ~/domain.com.ssl/domain.com.csr

When prompted, enter the necessary information for creating a CSR by using the conventions shown in the following table.

FieldMeaningExample
/C=CountryNL
/ST=StateNoord-Holland
/L=LocationAmstelveen
/O=OrganizationSwatantra Inc.
/OU=Organizational UnitSwatantra Solutions
/CN=Common Nameexample.domain.com

Verify your CSR

Run the following command to verify your CSR:

openssl req -noout -text -in ~/domain.com.ssl/domain.com.csr

After you have verified your CSR, you can submit it to a CA to purchase an SSL certificate.

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Virtual Desktop Infrastructure vs Remote Desktop Service

Desktop virtualization has become an inevitable option for businesses to optimize resources, provide mobility solutions, and deliver a higher level of performance.

Virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) is virtualization technology that hosts a desktop operating system on a centralized server in a data center. VDI is a variation on the client-server computing model, sometimes referred to as server-based computing.

Remote Desktop Services (RDS) is an umbrella term for features of Microsoft Windows Server that allow users to remotely access graphical desktops and Windows applications. 

For desktop virtualization, companies can choose between VDI or RDS: either a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) or a remote desktop service (RDS).

While both these technologies have their own strengths and weaknesses, they each have a specific purpose, and businesses need to choose the right solution for their desktop virtualization requirements based on their present and future business needs. 

Benefits of VDI:

  • Utilization of Same Image.
  • Management of a Single OS Can Reduce Costs.
  • Processing moves from individual workstations to a VDI server.
  • Troubleshooting Problems is Easier.
  • Data is More Secure.

Benefits of RDS:

  • Single point of maintenance.
  • Install once, use many.
  • Reduced licenses expense.
  • Solid Security.
  • Lower Costs.

VDI is different from RDS in various ways:

  1. In a RDS environment multiple users can access a single environment, which could be customized on a per user basis but resources are not dedicated to a particular user. Whereas, In a VDI environment each user either accesses their own centrally hosted physical PC or VM or they can access a shared VM.
  2. Also, In a VDI environment physical CPU, Memory and Disk capacity can be allocated to particular user which stops one user’s actions affecting other users.
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