Category Archives: HTTP Concepts

Media Domain – common glossary

Media Glossary & Terminology

Ever wonder with all the terms being used in the Media industry? Here is a sneak peak of all the glossary.

Media resolution chart

Item  Description
Analog Media software which has a physical quality and presence.
Asset Uniquely identifiabse container for a file with descriptive metadata and, depending the asset class, a processing workflow
Asset class Specification of an asset to identify certain characteristics based on their asset kind
Asset description A descriptive attribute for a file
Asset kind Asset characteristics with mimetype. etc
Asset Management System (AMS) Manages database library of VOD Assets and associated metadata
Barker A promotional loop video played within a window in the On Demand GUI
Broadcasting  Refers to content carried over air waves. Usually designed to appeal to a broad audience segment.
Closed Captioning (CC) Embedded technology to provide scripted support of the program
Cloud Computing Internet-based computing accessible through a web browser and that uses data farms to store and make available software and information in real time.
Commercial For profit. Also, paid announcements produced for targeted audiences to sell products or ideas. The economic force that finances commercial media.
Connote/Connotation A description of value, meaning or ideology associated with a media text that is added to the text by the audience.
Content preparation Conform, check and format content and localisation
Contributor Any content provider (studio, distributor, content owner) who contributes to AMS
Copyright The laws that require compensation for the use of property and information owned by artists, writers and media producers.
Creative Commons A non-profit organization that seeks to expand how creative work is available for others to use legally.
Delivery DD (Due Date) Planned schedule for delivery of the ingested, fully prepared package which results in lob prioritization for asset processing (QC, transcoding, etc ) and actionable items (if assets haven’t been contributed to AMS yet)
Delivery Request An order of products for a platform, which results in preparatory work to meet the specifications of that platform resulting in a search for reusable metadata (from the title version) and files or the request for contribution to start the ingest process to complete the delivery request.
Delivery Request Locked Certain parts of a delivery may be locked when it is in progress. Updates are possible to a certain extent (restrictions based on certain criteria). These criteria may be subject to change.
Delivery SD (Start Date) Start of window in which deliveries can be submitted to a platform. Particularly useful with certain outlets who have a max per day.
Digital The storage and transmission of information by reducing it to digits and then reassembling it for an exact reproduction.
Digital Rights Management (DRM) A system that seeks to protect the copyright of data circulated via the Internet.
Director The person responsible for the overall look of a video or film product. Directs the action behind and in front of the camera. Sometimes directs the editing process.
Editing The process of arranging, assembling or excluding images, text and sound to produce a completed media product.
Editor The person responsible for assembling the various parts of a media product.
Fair Use The legal guidelines which exempt educators from certain copyright restrictions. Fair use of educational materials allows some media products to be used to a limited degree in the classroom.
Filter Easy to use GUI to easily segment data into smaller subsets
First Release Date Original release date. used for Year
Gatekeepers Those in control of the flow of information. The gatekeeper can choose to accept or reject a piece of information for public consumption. Newspaper publishers, editors and reporters, television producers, press secretaries, government spokespersons, radio station owners and broadcasting executives have all been cited as examples of media gatekeepers.
Genre Specific kinds of media content, e.g., drama, entertainment, information, news, advertising, etc. Each category is defined with traditional conventions, but categories may overlap as in “docu-drama” or “info-tainment.”
Genre A category of media texts characterized by a particular style, form or content.
GUI Graphic User Interface, the application of UpperEast as a user sees and uses it.
Ingest Manual or automated intake of content and metadata
Ingestion The process of receiving assets from a contributor, successfully entering those assets into the AMS, and preparing them according to the specification of the delivery platform to make them available as a delivery package.
ISAN International Standard Audiovisual Number – Unique ISO Identifier for Audiovisual Content for audiovisual works and versions thereof.
License ED (End Date) End of the window in which the product can be leased or rented
License SD (Start Date) Start of the window in which the product can be leased or rented
Logo The copyrighted symbol used to represent a corporation, company or individual.
Mash-Up A song, video or website that is the result of combining multiple songs, videos or websites.
Mass Media Mass media are channels of communication through which messages flow, produced by a few for consumption by many people. As the messages go through the channels, they may become distorted. When people receive mass-media messages, they have no opportunity for immediate feedback with the producers of the messages.
Media Vehicles that carry messages. Common media channels are televisions, radios, telephones and newspapers.
Media Targets Audiences are media targets. Audiences are targeted, sold and delivered to advertisers by media agencies. Groups are targeted on the basis of demographics, media-use patterns, ZIP codes, and polling by those who wish to sell or persuade.
Metadata The information used in describing assets. Metadata is descriptive data associated with a content asset package or file. It may vary in depth from merely identifying the content package title or information to populate an EPG to providing a complete index of different scenes in a movie or providing business rules detailing how the content package may be displayed, copied. or sold.
Metadata language Localisation of the metadata, e.g. in which language a synopsis is written
Metadata preparation Conform, check and format metadata according to the specification of the delivery platform.
Mezzanine Working copy of video asset of sufficient quality to generate the highest output, small enough to move around, archive, and work with, in order to free up resources once all major edits and processing are completed.
MIME Type 
MOD – Movies On Demand Impulse viewing of a selection of movie programming with full pause, fast forward and reqind functionality for a per transaction charge. Also in use : TVOD
Movie version (Release version) A particular version, or aggregation of elements that affects the content of an audiovisual work. For example, any editorial change that affects the content of an audiovisual work (e.g. artistic content. editing, technical format, distribution) and which requires separate identification for the use or exploitation of that specific content can be treated as a new Version. Example Director’s Cut.
Narrowcasting Producing and designing media content in order to target a highly specific segment of the audience. Narrowcasting is often practiced by magazines, radio stations and cablecasters. Opposite of broadcasting.
Objective The ideal that the media producer or reporter is representing a balanced viewpoint on issues. The ideal that media producers are fair, accurate, unbiased conduits for information. Opposite of subjective.
Onboarding (operational) Entering new publication (delivery) platforms or (ingest) contributors to AMS
Order ID Unique order identification for tracking purposes
Podcasting A method for delivering audio or video files to users who subscribe to them.
Preview Something that a content provider produces to promote a particular piece of content Previews are usually 30 seconds to 1 minute long, and are most often excerpted from Trailer material (see definition) provided by the studios for that asset.
Prime Time That part of a radio or television schedule expected to attract the largest audience.
Producer The final authority in the electronic media production process. Sometimes the producer is the person who raises the money to produce media products.
Product Placement A process that advertisers use to have their brand or product appear in TV shows, movies and video games as part of the production.
Provisioning (asset) Platform, regional and localisation preparation to expect assets to enter into a workflow
Ratings (Movie/TV) Ratings of content for age limits and warnings for content, to advise parents regarding suitability of programming for children.
Reasons (Movie/TV Ratings) A specific reason for the indicated advisory, e.g. nudity, language, violence
Region A geographical, platform defined region that has specific language destination profiles e g Benelux (nl. fr, de) or The Netherlands (nl-NL)
Rendition Transcoding to a compressed format, multiple renditions exist for multiple bitrates.
Rights owner Studio that owns the (original) copyrights
Schedule delivery Scheduler for publication of a delivery to the respective platform once full compliance has been met (validation of content and metadata according to the specification of the platform)
Send Delivery (publish) Publication for a delivery to the respective platform once full compliance has been met (validation of content and metadata according to the specification of the platform)
Short synopsis A brief version of the movie title (for display) of max 256 chars.
Show type Series, Sports, Music, Ad, Miniseries, Movie, Other
Sound Effects Special effects using sound to suggest a story element such as background, time, place, character, etc. Also used to heighten and intensify action or evoke an emotional response.
Special Effects Sound or video used in the editing process to heighten drama or suggest a time, place or story element. Often used as a transition.
SVOD – Subscription Video On Demand Impulse viewing of a selection of programming with full pause, fast forward and rewind functionality for a flat monthly charge. Also in use “Premium On Demand”
Synopsis Full summary of title of max 4096 chars.
Technical metadata (metadata) Descriptive data about technical specification of a file, for example a framerate, duration, crop marks, etc.
Trailer Trailers promote a particular piece of content and range from about one to three minutes in length. They are typically produced by the studios. Depending requirements, they may or may not be encrypted.
Type Type of title version, e.g. movie or episode
UPC Universal Product Code (UPC) is a 12-digit bar code. Used extensively for retail packaging in United States.
User Generated Content (UGC) Online content, including text, graphics, video and audio, found on websites and blogs that individual users create rather than traditional producers, such as commercial broadcasters and production companies.
Version (movie) See “Movie version”
Vertical Integration The process by which a media company acquires another elsewhere in the production process.
Video On Demand On Demand is an entertainment service that allows viewers instant access to content such as movies, cable series, original programs, educational programming, premium channels, news, sports and more. Programming from the content provider is delivered by the consumer’s cable operator. The On Demand content can be free, subscription based, or paid for on a transactional basis. Consumers control what they watch and when, with features such as play, pause, fast-forward, rewind, stop and resume. Also more generally: On Demand
Year Year of release

Abbreviation used in Media industry

ACL Access Control Level
ADI Asset Distribution Interface
AVOD Advertising Video on Demand
CA Conditional Access
CC Closed Captioning
DD Due Date
EME Encrypted Media Extensions
GOP Group of Pictures
GUI Graphic User Interface
HDS Adobe HTTP Dynamic Streaming
HLS Apple HTTP Live Streaming
ISAN International Standard Audiovisual Number
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (aka Internet Media Type)
MOD Movies on Demand
MPEG Motion Picture Expert Group
MPEG-DASH Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP
MSS Microsoft Smooth Streaming
NTSC National Television System Committee
OID Order ID
PID Program Identification
STB Set-Top Box
SVOD Subscription Video on Demand
TVOD Transaction Video on Demand
UE UpperEast
UPC Universal Product Code
VOD Video on Demand
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SSH: How to Connect to Remote Server in Ubuntu

What Is SSH?

One essential tool to master as a system administrator is SSH.

SSH, or Secure Shell, is a protocol used to securely log onto remote systems. It is the most common way to access remote Linux and Unix-like servers.

Here, I shall discuss how to use SSH to connect to a remote system.

Basic Syntax

The tool on Linux for connecting to a remote system using SSH is called, unsurprisingly, ssh.

The most basic form of the command is:

ssh remote_host

The remote_host in the example is the IP address or domain name that you are trying to connect to.

This command assumes that your username on the remote system is the same as your username on your local system.

If your username is different on the remote system, you can specify it by using this syntax:

ssh remote_username@remote_host

Once you have connected to the server, you will probably be asked to verify your identity by providing a password.

Later, I shall cover how to generate keys to use instead of passwords.

To exit back into your local session, simply type:


How Does SSH Work?

SSH works by connecting a client program to an ssh server.

In the above commands, ssh is the client program. The ssh server is already running on the remote_host that we specified.

On Ubuntu, you can start the ssh server on the Droplet by typing:

sudo service ssh start

On Ubuntu 16.04 and Debian Jessie, you can use systemctl, the systemd command for managing services:

sudo systemctl start ssh

That should start the sshd server and you can then log in remotely.

How To Configure SSH

When you change the configuration of SSH, you are changing the settings of the sshd server.

In Ubuntu, the main sshd configuration file is located at /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

Back up the current version of this file before editing:

sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config{,.bak}

Open it with a text editor:

sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config

You will want to leave most of the options in this file alone. However, there are a few you may want to take a look at:

Port 22

The port declaration specifies which port the sshd server will listen on for connections. By default, this is 22. You should probably leave this setting alone, unless you have specific reasons to do otherwise. If you do change your port, I shall show you how to connect to the new port later on.

host keys declarations

HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_ecdsa_key

The host keys declarations specify where to look for global host keys. We will discuss what a host key is later.

level of logging

SyslogFacility AUTH
LogLevel INFO

These two items indicate the level of logging that should occur.

If you are having difficulties with SSH, increasing the amount of logging may be a good way to discover what the issue is.

login configuration

LoginGraceTime 120
PermitRootLogin yes
StrictModes yes

These parameters specify some of the login information.

LoginGraceTime specifies how many seconds to keep the connection alive without successfully logging in.

It may be a good idea to set this time just a little bit higher than the amount of time it takes you to log in normally.

PermitRootLogin selects whether root is allowed to log in.

In most cases, this should be changed to “no” when you have created user account that has access to elevated privileges (through su or sudo) and can log in through ssh.

strictModes is a safety guard that will refuse a login attempt if the authentication files are readable by everyone.

This prevents login attempts when the configuration files are not secure.

X11 Forwarding

X11Forwarding yes
X11DisplayOffset 10

These parameters configure an ability called X11 Forwarding. This allows you to view a remote system’s graphical user interface (GUI) on the local system.

This option must be enabled on the server and given with the SSH client during connection with the -Xoption.

Restart sshd server

If you changed any settings in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, make sure you restart your sshd server to implement your modifications:

sudo service ssh restart

Or, on systemd systems such as Ubuntu 16.04 or Debian Jessie:

sudo systemctl restart ssh

You should thoroughly test your changes to ensure that they operate in the way you expect.

It may be a good idea to have a few sessions active when you are making changes. This will allow you to revert the configuration if necessary.

If you run into problems, remember that you can log in through the Console link on your Droplet page.

How To Log Into SSH with Keys

While it is helpful to be able to log in to a remote system using passwords, it’s a much better idea to set up key-based authentication.

How Does Key-based Authentication Work?

Key-based authentication works by creating a pair of keys: a private key and a public key.

The private key is located on the client machine and is secured and kept secret.

The public key can be given to anyone or placed on any server you wish to access.

When you attempt to connect using a key-pair, the server will use the public key to create a message for the client computer that can only be read with the private key.

The client computer then sends the appropriate response back to the server and the server will know that the client is legitimate.

This entire process is done in the background automatically after you set up keys.

How To Create SSH Keys

SSH keys should be generated on the computer you wish to log in from. This is usually your local computer.

Enter the following into the command line:

ssh-keygen -t rsa

Press enter to accept the defaults. Your keys will be created at ~/.ssh/ and ~/.ssh/id_rsa.

Change into the .ssh directory by typing:

cd ~/.ssh

Look at the permissions of the files:

ls -l
-rw-r--r-- 1 demo demo  807 Sep  9 22:15 authorized_keys
-rw------- 1 demo demo 1679 Sep  9 23:13 id_rsa
-rw-r--r-- 1 demo demo  396 Sep  9 23:13

As you can see, the id_rsa file is readable and writable only to the owner. This is how it should be to keep it secret.

The file, however, can be shared and has permissions appropriate for this activity.

How To Transfer Your Public Key to the Server

You can copy the public key to the remote server by issuing this command:

ssh-copy-id remote_host

This will start an SSH session, which you will need to authenticate with your password.

After you enter your password, it will copy your public key to the server’s authorized keys file, which will allow you to log in without the password next time.

Client-Side Options

There are a number of optional flags that you can select when connecting through SSH.

Some of these may be necessary to match the settings in the remote host’s sshd configuration.

For instance, you if you changed the port number in your sshd configuration, you will need to match that port on the client-side by typing:

ssh -p port_number remote_host

If you only wish to execute a single command on a remote system, you can specify it after the host like so:

ssh remote_host command_to_run

You will connect to the remote machine, authenticate, and the command will be executed.

As we said before, if X11 forwarding is enabled on both computers, you can access that functionality by typing:

ssh -X remote_host

Providing you have the appropriate tools on your computer, GUI programs that you use on the remote system will now open their window on your local system.

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